DAY ZERO – 17 November 2014
President and CEO of ICANN, Fadi Chehadé’s career has been defined by building consensus and promoting collaborative technologies and practices. He has more than 25 years of experience in building and leading progressive Internet enterprises, leveraging relationships with senior executives and government officials across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the United States. Most recently he served as CEO of Vocado LLC, a US firm that provides cloud‑based software for the administration of educational institutions. Prior to Vocado, Mr Chehadé was CEO of CoreObjects Software, Inc., where he oversaw the expansion of the company to include more than 400 engineers and its successful acquisition by Symphony Services. He also served as the General Manager of IBM’s Global Technology Services in the Middle East and North Africa. Mr Chehadé founded and has led three companies since 1987: ʘ Viacore, launched in 1999, was the world’s leading B2B process integration hub offering a complete solution of specialised software and services for global 500 companies. In 2006, Mr Chehadé led Vicaore’s successful acquisition by IBM. ʘ RosettaNet, a non‑profit multistakeholder company founded in 1997. Mr Chehadé rallied all the leading ICT companies in the world including IBM, HP, Microsoft, SAP, Nokia, and Oracle to collaborate on B2B standards. RosettaNet became the high‑technology industry’s leading eBusiness standards consortium. ʘ Nett Information Products, launched in 1987 to create and develop an Internet‑based content management and sharing solution, successfully weaving hundreds of ICT suppliers and thousands of their resellers into a powerful collaborative business web of applications and content. Ingram Micro the world’s largest ICT distributor acquired Nett, where Mr Chehadé became vice‑president of its Customer Information Services Group. Mr Chehadé is a graduate of Stanford University, where he earned a Master’s degree in Engineering Management. He earlier earned a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from the Polytechnic University in New York, where he graduated Summa Cum Laude. He is also the founder of Nilorado, a youth organisation raising funds to support schools for handicapped children in Upper Egypt, and delivering bicycles to boys and girls from needy families in that region who otherwise cannot reach their schools.
DAY ONE – 18 November 2014
Welcome and opening remarks
Ambassador Jürg Lauber is Assistant State Secretary for the United Nations and other International Organizations in the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Born in Horgen, Switzerland, he has a Law degree from the University of Zurich. Amb. Lauber was on peacekeeping missions in Namibia (UNTAG) and Korea (Panmunjom) before he joined the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs in 1993 and was posted in Bangkok, Bern, Beijing, and to the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations in New York. Between 2007 and 2009, he served as Chef de Cabinet to the President of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, the Netherlands. Between 2009 and 2011, he was the Deputy Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, and the Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the Conference on Disarmament.
Ruedi Noser is a successful Swiss entrepreneur. He is chairman of the board of Noser Management AG and the main shareholder of the Noser Group companies. The group’s capabilities are in telecommunications and IT. He was elected a member of the Swiss parliament in 2003. In his capacity as an MP, he is outspoken in defending the freedom of companies to develop, the interests of SMEs (small and medium‑sized enterprises) as well as the system of vocational training. Since December 2010, he has been a member of the Committee for Economic Affairs and Taxation. Before that, he was leader of the parties group in the Committee for Science, Education and Culture for many years. Mr Noser is the president of the Swiss Innovation Park, an organisation which wants to bring together international and resident enterprises with Swiss educational and research institutes. He is married, has four children, and lives in the canton of Zurich.
FORUM: One Internet – many policy angles
Malcolm Johnson was elected to Deputy Secretary‑General of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) at the 2014 Plenipotentiary Meeting in Busan. Prior to this position, he was the Director of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Bureau, to which he was elected in 2006 and re‑elected at 2010. He is particularly interested in issues concerning cybersecurity, climate change, and accessibility to ICTs for persons with disabilities, and he seeks to increase the ITU’s involvement in developing countries. Furthermore, he introduced the free downloading of the ITU‑T Recommendations and initiated a programme to address major developing country concerns over the lack of interoperability and conformity to ITU standards. He has also worked on improving the collaboration between ITU‑T and other organisations, such as universities and research institutes, and launched the annual Kaleidoscope Academic Conference in 2008. Mr Johnson encouraged the use of electronic working methods across ITU‑T Study Groups and introduced a paperless policy in the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau. Prior to his election to the ITU, Mr Johnson acted as Head or Deputy Head of UK Delegations to ITU world conferences, assemblies and advisory groups from 1992. Before 1992, he worked in the European Commission DGXIII representing the European Commission in CEPT and ETSI.
Johannes Christian Wichard, a national of Germany, has been Deputy Director General, Global Issues, of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) since December 2009. His responsibilities include WIPO’s programmes on Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources, Intellectual Property (IP) and Global Challenges, IP and Competition Policy, Building Respect for IP, the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center, Small and Medium Enterprises, Communications, External Relations, and WIPO’s relations with certain Countries in Europe and Asia, including Lithuania. Prior to joining WIPO, he was, from August 2006, Deputy Director General in the German Federal Ministry of Justice in charge of IP law and policy and other economic and commercial law matters. Between November 1998 and July 2006, Mr Wichard worked at WIPO, first in the Industrial Property Law Division, then in the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center. Before that, since 1996, he was Deputy Head of Section in the German Federal Ministry of Justice dealing with Trademarks and Unfair Competition, after a brief career in teaching and research at the Faculties of Law of the Universities of Tübingen (from 1989) and Berlin (as of 1995). Mr Wichard holds Law degrees from the state of Baden Württemberg (Germany), a Doctorate in Law from the University of Tübingen, and a Master’s from Harvard Law School. He was admitted to the New York Bar in 1993.
Yi Xiaozhun has extensive experience in world trade and economics, both as a senior government official and subsequently as China’s ambassador to the World Trade Organization (WTO). He represented China as a key negotiator in China’s WTO accession process, making an important contribution to the negotiations. Prior to becoming China’s ambassador to the WTO in 2011, Mr Yi was Assistant Minister and subsequently China’s Vice‑Minister of Commerce in charge of multilateral and regional trade negotiations and cooperation. Besides his contribution to China’s WTO accession, he played a leading role in negotiating numerous free trade agreements (FTAs), including the China‑ASEAN agreement, China’s first FTA. He also worked as a diplomat at the Chinese Embassy in the United States for more than four years from the late 1980s to the early 1990s. Mr Yi obtained a Master’s degree in Economics from Nankai University in China in 1999.
Flavia Pansieri was appointed United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights in 15 March 2013. In the past 30 years she has held a number of increasingly responsible positions in many UN system agencies and in various countries and headquarters locations. Most recently, Ms Pansieri served as the Executive Coordinator of the UN Volunteers (UNV) Programme (2008–2012). Prior to joining UNV, she served as the United Nations Resident Coordinator and Resident Representative of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the Republic of Yemen (2004–2008). Ms Pansieri started her UN career in 1983 with UNDP in China, where she was responsible for the UNV and TOKTEN programmes, as well as for projects in the energy sector. She continued with the UNDP in Bangladesh (1987–1990) and Myanmar (1990–1993), followed by a posting to Laos as Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and thereafter from 1995 to 1998 at UNODC Headquarters in Vienna directing, planning, and evaluating activities. As the Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in New York (1998–2001), she engaged in promoting women’s economic, social and political participation and in raising awareness about gender equality issues. Before taking up the RC/RR position in Yemen, she was in charge of the Country Division of the Regional Bureau for Arab States at UNDP, providing guidance and support to programme activities in the various countries of the Arab region. Ms Pansieri is an Italian national with a doctoral degree in Philosophy from Milan University, and one in Chinese Language and Literature from Venice University. She is a fluent speaker of English, German, French, Spanish, Chinese, and Italian.
FORUM: Mapping the Internet governance landscape – actors, processes, and issues
Dr Jovan Kurbalija is the founding director of DiploFoundation and the head of the Geneva Internet Platform (GIP). He is a former diplomat with a professional and academic background in international law, diplomacy, and information technology. In 1992, he established the Unit for IT and Diplomacy at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies in Malta. In 2002, after more than ten years of successful work in training, research, and publishing, the Unit evolved into DiploFoundation. He was member of the UN Working Group on Internet Governance, special advisor to the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and the member of the NETmundial’s High Level Multistakeholder Committee. Dr Kurbalija directs online learning courses on ICT and diplomacy and lectures in academic and training institutions in Switzerland, the United States, Austria, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Malta. His main areas of research are diplomacy, digital politics, Internet governance, online negotiations and diplomatic law. He is the author of An Introduction to Internet Governance, which has been translated into nine languages and is now in its 6th edition.
Louis Pouzin has acquired an international reputation as an expert in computer communications and networks. Most of his career has been devoted to the design and implementation of computer systems, such as CTSS, the first large time‑sharing system at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or the CYCLADES computer network and its datagram packet switching network, from which TCP/IP was derived. Besides his experience leading teams of top professionals, he is known internationally for his participation in early network standardisation activities within IFIP, ISO, and CCITT, and his numerous publications, many of which have become educational material in network courses. As a lecturer, he is especially appreciated for presenting complex subjects in clear and understandable terms. He graduated from École Polytechnique in Paris. He is past chairman of IFIP‑TC‑6 (data communications). He has published more than 80 articles and a book on computer networks. Among awards he has received: IFIP Silver Core, ACM SIGCOMM, IEEE Internet, French Légion d’Honneur, ISOC Hall of Fame, Queen Elizabeth prize for engineering, and French Médaille d’Honneur de l’Académie des Technologies. Presently he is President of Open‑Root, a service promoting independent DNS roots in the Internet.
William J. Drake is an International Fellow and Lecturer in the Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research at the University of Zurich, where he teaches Global Internet Governance, The Internet and World Politics, and related courses. He is also the Chair of the 380‑member Noncommercial Users Constituency and a member of the Board of Directors of the European At Large Organization in ICANN; a member of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF); a member of the 1Net coalition’s Coordinating Committee; a core faculty member of the European and South Schools on Internet Governance; and an Affiliated Researcher at the Institute for Tele‑Information at Columbia University. Previous positions include, inter alia: Senior Associate and Director of the Project on the Information Revolution and World Politics at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; founding Associate Director of the Communication, Culture and Technology Program at Georgetown University; Assistant Professor of Communication at the University of California, San Diego; and adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies, and at Georgetown University’s School of Business. Previous activities include, inter alia, co‑editor of the MIT Press book series, The Information Revolution and Global Politics; two‑term member of the GNSO Council in ICANN; advisor to the high‑level Panel on Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms; member of the United Nations Working Group on Internet Governance; Vice‑chairperson and founding Steering Committee member of the Global Internet Governance Academic Network; member of the Group of High‑Level Advisors of the United Nations’ Global Alliance for ICT and Development; member of Working Group 1 of the UN Information and Communication Technologies Task Force; and member of the World Economic Forum’s Task Force on the Global Digital Divide. His most recent book is the edited volume, Internet Governance: The NETmundial Roadmap; and he is currently working on co‑edited volume titled, The Institutionalization of Global Internet Governance: Multistakeholderism, Multilateralism and Beyond. He received his PhD in Political Science from Columbia University.
Rinalia Abdul Rahim is Managing Director of Compass Rose Sdn Bhd, a private consulting company that provides strategic advice for enhancing organisational and network performance, learning, and impact. She has more than 15 years of experience in ICT policy and international development where she worked on expanding digital inclusion and issues related to access, empowerment and governance. She led the Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP) as its Executive Director from 2001 to 2008 and was effective in bringing together stakeholders from the public, private and civil society sectors to address development challenges through collaboration. Ms Adbul Rahim successfully positioned the GKP as the leading global multistakeholder network in the field of ICT for Development. Under her leadership, the GKP Secretariat moved from the World Bank Institute and was established as a non‑profit company in Malaysia. She globalised the GKP membership, established networks in every region, and developed global and regional programmes for sharing knowledge, building partnerships, and spreading best practices. At the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in 2003, the GKP co‑organised the ICT4D Platform – an initiative that involved 265 partner organisations from 80 countries – to showcase innovative, people‑centred, collaboration‑based solutions from around the world for reducing poverty, improving lives and empowering people. Ms Adbul Rahim has held various positions with national, regional and international bodies. She holds a Master’s in Public Policy from Harvard University and a Bachelor’s in Political Science from Princeton University.
Khaled Fattal is an Arab American born in Syria, raised in Beirut Lebanon, who has been living in the west for the last 29 years. He is Multilingual Internet Names Consortium’s (MINC) current chairman and CEO, and has served as its chairman since November 2002 and as CEO since early 2003. Mr Fattal e is CEO of International Business Enterprises Limited Known as IBE limited, and President of Waqalat Arbitration Center in New Delhi, India. He is a founding member of Arabic Internet Names Consortium (AINC) and is its acting executive director, amongst many other designations. Mr Fattal brings experience from across industries ranging from the financial sector where he worked with major banking institutions in the USA to top fortune 500 multinationals specialising in fast‑moving consumer goods (FMCG), as well as in the IT industry. He is an expert in market development with specialised expertise across continents especially the Middle East, Europe, North America, and the Far East. His involvement in the global and multilingual Internet in the last decade has brought all this experiences and channelled them towards helping create a truly global multilingual Internet based on local empowerment and direct involvement by the local language communities through his role as chairman and CEO of MINC as well as through his direct involvement in WSIS and its declaration of Principle and action plan of December 2003, and the consultation on the formation of the United Nations Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) created by Mr Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations.
Same issues, different perspectives: overcoming policy silos in privacy and data protection
Vladimir Radunović is coordinator of e‑diplomacy educational and training programmes at DiploFoundation. Prior to this, he coordinated the Internet governance and policy programmes. Vladimir has also served as a member of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) of the UN Internet Governance Forum (IGF) since 2012, and is a member of the Steering Committee of /1Net. He has actively participated in the global process since WSIS in 2003, and has been a lecturer and a speaker in a number of online and in situ professional education and training workshops in Internet governance worldwide. His professional focus is on capacity development and online learning, broadband and access policy, cybersecurity and Internet safety, network neutrality, open Internet and end‑user rights, e‑participation and e‑diplomacy, and Internet governance process and negotiations. He holds an MSc in Electrical Engineering from the University of Belgrade and a Master’s in Contemporary Diplomacy from the University of Malta with a dissertation on e‑diplomacy. He is currently enrolled in a PhD programme in Cybersecurity. He was born and lives in Serbia.
Brian Trammell is a Senior Researcher at the Communications Systems Group at ETH Zürich, where he works on Internet measurement and the evolution of the transport layer. He is a member of the Internet Architecture Board and Program Lead for the IAB’s IP Stack Evolution program. He’s the author of a number of RFCs, mostly related to network measurement, and a former co‑chair of the MILE (Managed Incident Lightweight Exchange) working group, concerned with security incident data interchange. He’s been involved in large‑scale passive measurement of networks for research and operations purposes for the past decade, which has naturally led to a great deal of worrying about data protection.
Executive Director of Internet & Digital Ecosystem Alliance, Nick Ashton‑Hart is the senior permanent representative connected to the for‑profit technology sector to the UN, its member states, and the international organisations resident in Geneva. He has been an active part of multilateral policy development starting with the sustainable development agenda for the world’s cities (HABITAT 11) in 1992, active in the Geneva community for 14 years, and a resident of it for the past 8. He came to international policy from a successful private‑sector career in both the entertainment and ICT sectors, starting in the music industry managing some of the world’s most successful and influential artists like the ‘Godfather of Soul’ James Brown as well multi‑platinum artists Heaven 17. In the tech sector he went from a Systems Administrator post to CIO/CTO in five years and has broad hands‑on technology experience from running a small local area network to designing multi‑country wide area networks. Prior to founding IDEA, he was Geneva Representative of the Computer & Communications Industry Association (CCIA), Director for At‑Large and Senior Director for Participation and Engagement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and Executive Director of the International Music Managers Forum (IMMF), the international non‑governmental organisation representing the interests of music managers and their clients. Current Positions and Advisory Roles: Member, e15Initiative Trade and Innovation Expert Group, Member, Evian Group@IMD Trade Task Force, and Member, Board of Directors, MetaBrainz Foundation, the corporate home of MusicBrainz.
Ambassador Thomas Hajnoczi has been serving as Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations Office at Geneva since April 2013. Prior to his appointment to Geneva, from 2009 to 2013, Amb. Hajnoczi was Permanent Representative of Austria to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. From 1999 to 2003, he held the position of Austrian Ambassador to Norway. Earlier in his career, from 1989 to 1994, he served as Deputy Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations in New York. In the Foreign Ministry in Vienna, he worked, in addition to other jobs, in the UN department, was head of the department for disarmament and non‑proliferation, and finally from 2003 to 2009 head of the department for security policy and EU foreign policy coordination. Amb. Hajnoczi studied Law and Economics in Vienna and received his doctorate degree in Law in 1977. He joined the Austrian Foreign Service in 1978.
Carly Nyst is the Legal Director of Privacy International (PI), and leads PI’s engagement with international human rights mechanisms and humanitarian organisations. Prior to joining PI, Ms Nyst was the Legal Adviser to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, and Visiting Scholar at the Columbia Law School’s Human Rights Institute. An Australian‑qualified lawyer, Ms Nyst has worked in human rights law and advocacy at the national and international levels. She holds an MSc in International Relations from the London School of Economics, and Bachelors’ degrees in Law and International Relations from the University of Queensland, Australia.
Legal framework, jurisdiction, and enforcement in Internet governance
Jacques de Werra is professor of contract law and intellectual property law at the Law School of the University of Geneva, Switzerland. He authored a doctoral thesis in Swiss and comparative copyright law which he completed as a visiting scholar at the Max‑Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law in Munich in 1996. He then practiced law in Switzerland, before obtaining an LL.M. degree from Columbia Law School in New York City in 2001 and being admitted to the New York bar in 2002. He was a Faculty Fellow (2012‑2013) and a Faculty Associate at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society (2013‑2014). Jacques researches, publishes and speaks on topics related to various aspects of intellectual property law, contract law, particularly on the commercialization of intellectual property assets by way of transfer of technology, licensing and franchising, IT and Internet law, as well as on alternative dispute resolution mechanisms for IP and technology disputes. He is the coordinator for the University of Geneva of the WIPO – University of Geneva Summer school on Intellectual Property and of the University of Geneva summer school on Internet law (www.internetlaw‑ Jacques is the editor of a scientific books series, propriété intellectuelle – intellectual property, in which the proceedings of annual intellectual property law conferences held at the University of Geneva are published (journées de droit de la propriété intellectuelle). He is doing research on the topic of intellectual property contracts and most particularly on licensing contracts from a comparative and policy perspective.
Dr Rolf H. Weber is ordinary Professor for Civil, Commercial and European Law at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, and a Visiting Professor at the University of Hong Kong. His main fields of research are Internet and Information Technology Law, International Business Law, Media Law, Competition Law and International Financial Law. Dr Weber is director of the European Law Institute and the Center for Information and Communication Law at the University of Zurich. Since 2008, he has been a member of the Steering Committee of the Global Internet Governance Academic Network (GigaNet) and of the European Dialogue on Internet Governance (EuroDIG) and since 2009 a member of the High‑level Panel of Advisers of the Global Alliance for Information and Communication Technologies and Development (GAID). Prof. Weber is also engaged as an attorney‑at‑law. His research focus lies on the mentioned regulatory topics; the publication list is available at
Professor Joe Cannataci co‑founded and co‑directs (PT) STeP – the Security, Technology &e‑Privacy Research Group within the Faculty of Law at the University of Groningen where he holds the Chair of European Information Policy & Technology Law. He is Head of the Department of Information Policy & Governance at the Faculty of Media & Knowledge Sciences of the University of Malta and Adjunct Professor at the Security Research Institute and the School of Computer and Security Science at Edith Cowan University Australia. A considerable deal of Joe’s time is dedicated to collaborative research and he is currently overall co‑ordinator for the EU‑supported SMART, RESPECT and MAPPING projects dealing with various forms of surveillance, privacy and Internet Governance. He also continues to act as Expert Consultant to a number of international organisations. In 2012‑2013 he was engaged by the Council of Europe (CoE) to develop a concept paper on the application of data protection regulations in relation to transborder private/public information sharing for (a) network security purposes and (b) criminal justice purposes. During 2014 he continues to offer related advice to theCoE’s Consultative Committee of the Cybercrime Convention (T‑CY). For the period 2013‑2017, he is a domain‑expert as well as co‑leader of WG4 and a member of the Management Committee of the COST ICT 1206 Project `De‑identification for privacy protection in multimedia content’. In 2010 Joe was External Consultant for the Impact Assessment of policy options for data protection law in Europe contracted by the European Commission to GHK International. Since 2010, he is also Expert Consultant engaged by Council of Europe’s Consultative Committee (T‑PD) and the Directorate General of Human Rights and Rule of Law, to review provisions of the European Data Protection Convention and Recommendation (R(87)15 on police use of personal data. He has written books and articles on data protection law, liability for expert systems, legal aspects of medical informatics, copyright in computer software and co‑authored various papers and textbook chapters on self‑regulation and the Internet, the EU Constitution and data protection, on‑line dispute resolution, data retention and police data. A Fellow of the British Computer Society, in 2002 he was decorated by the Republic of France and elevated to Officierdansl’ordre des palmesacademiques. His pioneering role in the development of technology law and especially privacy law was cited as one of the main reasons for his being made the recipient of such an honour as was his contribution to the development of European information policy He has held or currently holds research grants from the British Academy, the Council of Europe, COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) and the European Commission, totalling in excess of Euro 20 million. He serves on the editorial board of six peer‑reviewed journals. His forthcoming book “The Individual and Privacy” will be published by Ashgate in February 2015.
Mira Burri is a senior fellow at the World Trade Institute and a lecturer at the University of Bern. She teaches a course on International Law of Contemporary Media and co‑teaches International Trade Regulation and International Intellectual Property Law. Ms Burri’s research focuses on the impact of digital technologies on governance mechanisms. She is co‑editor of the publications Free Trade versus Cultural Diversity (Schulthess, 2004), Digital Rights Management: The End of Collecting Societies? (Staempfli et al., 2005), as well as more recently Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions in a Digital Environment (Edward Elgar, 2008), Governance of Digital Game Environments and Cultural Diversity (Edward Elgar, 2010) and Trade Governance in the Digital Age (Cambridge University Press, 2012). Ms Burri has published in a number of peer‑reviewed outlets such as the Journal of International Economic Law, the Common Market Law Review, the European Law Review, the International Journal of Cultural Property and I/S: A Journal of the Law and Policy of the Information Society.
Konstantinos Komaitis is a Policy Advisor at the Internet Society (ISOC), focusing primarily on the field of digital content and intellectual property. Before joining ISOC in July 2012, he was a Senior Lecturer at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, UK. Mr Komaitis holds a PhD in Law and his thesis focused on issues of intellectual property and the Internet, with particular focus on the intersection of trademarks and domain names. Between 2010 and 2012, he served as the Chair of the Non‑Commercial Users Constituency at ICANN and he was a member of ICANN’s Special Trademark Issues (STI) team, which drafted the recommendations for the rights protection mechanisms for new gTLDs. Mr Komaitis is the author of the book The Current State of Domain Name Regulation and also serves as a domain name panellist for the Czech Arbitration Court. He is based in Geneva.
Xianhong Hu has been a program specialist at the Division of Freedom of Expression and Media Development, Communication and Information Sector of UNESCO’s Headquarters in Paris since 2006. Her main responsibilities are in the areas of freedom of expression, media development, and Internet governance. She has been managing the organisation’s projects on promoting freedom of expression, privacy, and safety on Internet, and has also been involved in the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and the Internet Governance Forum (IGF). Ms Hu is currently working on the implementation of UNESCO’s comprehensive Internet study. Her recent work at UNESCO is accessible at:
Inclusion in digital policy: e‑participation and capacity development
Pete Cranston is a knowledge management, communication, and social media specialist, with long experience as a facilitator and trainer. For the past 14 years he has worked in the third sector, mainly in international development, for a wide range of government, international NGO, research, and UK civil society organisations. A significant part of his work in the past 10 years has been with telecentres and local content exchange while his most recent research has been into global social media trends, with special reference to health communications, and the impact of convergent mobile technologies in rural development. Mr Cranston has his roots in Community Education. He believes facilitation is about enabling learning, collaboration, synthesis, and perhaps the emergence of new ideas and groupings. So while he favours participative approaches to events and process he is not bound to any specific methodology. An independent consultant since 2001, Mr Cranston has been working regularly with DiploFoundation since 2007 on communications and online collaboration projects. He teaches eDiplomacy and social media skills for diplomats at Diplo workshops and online courses.
Chengetai Masang is IGF Programme and Technology Manager of the Secretariat Executive Office, based in the United Nations Office in Geneva. The Secretariat assists and coordinates the work of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG). Mr Masango holds a PhD in Information Science and Technology and an MA in International Relations from Syracuse University.
Virginia (Ginger) Paque was born in the United States, but lived in Venezuela for more than 35 years. An educator and administrator by profession, she has 25 years of experience in business and manufacturing systems consulting. As a board member of the United Nations Association of Venezuela, her work as the Venezuelan member of the World Federation of United Nations Associations Task Force on WSIS brought her into the world of IG during the Geneva PrepComs. She is active in Civil Society discussions on IG, and served as IG Caucus co‑coordinator for two years. She is currently IGCBP coordintor for DiploFoundation, enjoying the opportunity to extend online capacity building programmes to developing countries in different languages. The research and implementation of e‑participation and online inclusion possibilities for global policy processes is another important priority area, with concrete applications in remote participation for global IG meetings such as the IGF. She recently completed her Master’s thesis in Contemporary Diplomacy on the importance of IG as a new diplomatic priority.
Anders Norsker was appointed Chief of the Information Services Department in the General Secretariat on 1 March 2008. Since his arrival, he has introduced several self‑services for the delegates (delegates web Portal) and staff in response to the need for efficiency and transparency. In January 2010, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) became IPSAS (International Public Sector Accounting Standards) compliant following a project collaboration between the IS Department and the Administration and Finance Department. Mr Norsker began his professional career at the Ministry of Greenland in 1982 followed by a position in the Danish Land Development Services and Danish Hydraulic Institute. He joined the United Nations in 1989 working with the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) and subsequently the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODC). From 2001 to 2006, he was Head of the Information and Communications Technology Services for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and from 2006 to 2008, he held the position of Chief, Information Technology Division at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). A national of Denmark, he holds a Master’s degree in Engineering from the Technical University of Denmark. At the international level, he has been a member of the ICC management committee and CEB/ICT Network and has been an IT expert at the Council of Europe over the years. His experience within the UN System has helped foster collaboration and harmonisation in the IT field between ITU and other UN organisations.
Marília Maciel is a researcher and coordinator of the Center for Technology and Society of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (CTS/FGV) in Rio de Janeiro. She is also a DiploFoundation fellow and former tutor on courses in the Internet Governance Capacity Building Programme and the course on E‑diplomacy. She serves as a councilor at ICANN´s Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) representing the Non‑commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG). She previously served in the NCSG Policy Committee. Ms Maciel was a member of the Executive Multistakeholder Committee, which took part on the organisation of NETmundial and she is a former member of the Working Group on IGF improvements (2011–2012), created under the auspices of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UN CSTD). She represented CTS/FGV in meetings of the Committee on Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (2008–2010). Currently she is a member of the Advisory Board on Internet security, created under the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Ms Maciel is also a member of the editorial board of PoliTICs Magazine and a PhD candidate on International Relations at the Pontifical Catholic University (PUC – Rio de Janeiro) developing a thesis on Internet governance, cybersecurity and defense. She holds a Master’s degree in Latin American Integration from the Federal University of Santa Maria (2008), and an Undergraduate in Law from the Federal University of Pernambuco (2005).
Anne‑Rachel Inné is part of the Government Engagement Team based in ICANN, Geneva and responsible for engagement with governments and missions. Immediately before rejoining ICANN, Ms Inné was the COO of AFRINIC, the Regional Internet Registry for Africa. Before that, she worked for eleven years at ICANN as Policy Analyst/Liaison, and Manager Regional Relations at ICANN where she was in charge of relations with the International and African communities (Governments, Private Sector, Civil Society, Academia, Media, Individual users, RIR etc.). Ms Inné is a founding member of African Internet related organisations like AfNOG, AFRINIC and AfrISPa, and others. She holds a Master of Literature and an MBA in International Finance/Economics.
DAY TWO – 19 November 2014
FORUM: How do actors cope with Internet governance complexity?
Robert Elliot Kahn is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet. After receiving an Engineering degree from City College of New York in 1960, Mr Kahn received a Master’s degree (1962) and a doctorate (1964) in Electrical Engineering from Princeton University. Immediately after completing his doctorate, he worked for Bell Laboratories and subsequently served as an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering at MIT from 1964 to 1966.
Hon. Helena Dalli is the Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs and Civil Liberties of Malta. She was elected to the Maltese Parliament for the first time in 1996 and served as Parliamentary Secretary for gender equality in the Office of the Prime Minister between 1996 and 1988. Dr Dalli was re‑elected to Parliament in all subsequent national elections. Between 1998 and 2013 she served as shadow minister for the public administration, public investment and gender equality. Following a change in government in March 2013, Dr Dalli was appointed Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs and Civil Liberties. She is also responsible for Data Protection. She championed various ambitious human rights and equality legislation, including a Civil Unions Act and is currently in the process of introducing a Cohabitation Bill, a Gender Identity Bill as well as the setting up of a human rights institution in line with the Paris Principles. Dr Dalli is a sociologist by profession and lectures in the areas of sociology of law, economics, and governance.
Parminder Jeet Singh is an Executive Director of IT for Change (, an organisation working at the intersection of information society and development. IT for Change is globally and nationally recognised as a key resource centre on information society and development issues, and has a Special Consultative Status with United Nations’ Economic and Social Council. Mr Singh has been an advisor to the Chair of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) of the UN Internet Governance Forum (IGF) and also to the United Nations’ Global Alliance on ICTs and Development. He was a member of the Working Group set by the UN to suggest improvements to the Internet Governance Forum. He was also a member of the UN Working Group on ‘enhanced cooperation on Internet policy issues’. He has been a Coordinator of Internet Governance Caucus, the premier global civil society group involved with Internet Governance. Recently, he helped establish the Just Net Coalition, and has been active in global Internet governance work as a part of that coalition. At the national level, Mr Singh was recently a member of a Task Force set up by the government of India on the implementation of proactive disclosures provisions of the Right to Information Act. He has recently authored a report on Community Knowledge Centers for the Karnataka Knowledge Commission. Mr Singh is also a member of the MAG of the India IGF.
Richard Samans is Managing Director and Member of the Managing Board of the World Economic Forum (WEF). He leads the Forum’s action‑oriented multistakeholder initiatives on major global challenges as head of its Centre for the Global Agenda. He is also responsible for the Forum’s relations with international organisations and coordinates its portfolio of public‑private partnership projects. From 2011 to 2013, he served as Director‑General of the Global Green Growth Institute, a new international organisation headquartered in Seoul, Republic of Korea. He led the organisation’s transformation from a start‑up non‑governmental organisation to a treaty‑based intergovernmental institution active in over 20 countries. Before earlier service at the World Economic Forum (WEF) from 2001 to 2011, Mr Samans served in the US White House as Special Assistant for International Economic Policy to President Bill Clinton and Senior Director for International Economic Affairs of the National Security Council. Prior to that, he was Economic Policy Adviser to US Senate Democratic Leader Thomas A. Daschle and served in a range of roles in other public, private and research institutions. Since 2007, he has also served as Chairman of the Climate Disclosure Standards Board, a consortium of business and environmental organisations that has established a common framework for reporting of carbon‑related corporate performance and risks in mainstream reports to the investment community.
Aims for full transparency – accept exceptional translucency
Veronica Cretu is President of the Open Government Institute, Moldova. She is a civil society representative on the Steering Committee of the Open Government Partnership (OGP). Throughout 2013–2014, Ms Cretu acted as EURALO representative on the Nominating Committee (NomCom) of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). During 2012–2014, she was a member of the Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) to the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) under Secretary General of the United Nations. At national level, Ms Cretu is a member of the civil society advisory board of UN Women, and a Coordinator of the civil society working group on e‑Government/Open Government of the National Participation Council (NPC). She holds a Master’s in Contemporary Diplomacy from the University of Malta.
Nigel Hickson works out of the Geneva office as part of the Government Engagement Team. He is responsible for global engagement with IGOs and other International organisations. Mr Hickson joined ICANN in 2012 and worked until 2014 as the VP for Europe. He joined ICANN from the UK government; where he had served in a number of capacities for just fewer than 30 years. Latterly he had been responsible for a team dealing with international ICT issues; including Internet governance. He is a keen walker, cyclist, and scouter.
Avri Doria is an itinerant research consultant. She is a member of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers Generic Names Supporting Organization (ICANN GNSO) council as a representative of the Non‑Commercial Stakeholder Group (NCSG) and was previously chair of the GNSO Council. She is a member of the UN Working Group on Enhanced Cooperation (WGEC) and was a member of the UN Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG). As a contractor she spent five years as a member the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) Secretariat, is a part‑time research associate for the Association for Progressive Communications (APC), part time VP, Policy and Governance, for dotgay LLC working with the LGBTQI community, working with PIR to establish a secretariat for their community advisory council for .ngo/.ong and consulting with Access on ITU issues. As a technologist, Ms Doria has been involved in the development of Internet protocols and architectures for over 30 years, is a participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and a past chair of the IRTF Routing Research Group. She is the author of multiple RFCs and occasionally teaches on Internet governance subjects. Ms Doria was awarded the ICANN Multistakeholder Ethos award in 2014.
Kari Tapiola has been with the International Labour Organization (ILO) since 1996. He served as Deputy Director‑General and Executive Director from 1996 to 2010. Since October 2010 he has been Special Adviser to the Director‑General of the ILO. Before joining the Office Mr Tapiola was a member of the ILO’s Governing Body, representing the Nordic Workers, for five years. He attended his first International Labor Conference as a Workers’ delegate of Finland in 1974. In the Conferences 1991–1996 he was Workers’ Vice‑President of the Resolutions Committee. Mr Tapiola worked in Finland as a journalist (1966–1972) and as the Political Secretary of the Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1972. He was International Secretary of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) in 1972–1976; Special Assistant to the Executive Director of the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (New York) in 1976–1978; and General Secretary of the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the OECD (Paris) in 1978–1985. In 1985, he became Information Director of SAK in Finland, moving on to International Affairs Director in 1988 up to the beginning of his assignment with the ILO.In his professional life Mr Tapiola has especially dealt with questions of international labor standards and fundamental principles and rights at work, multinational enterprises, the social and labor effects of globalization, technological change and industrial relations, and the social and labor issues in countries in transition.
Subsidiarity: how to make Internet governance decisions at the appropriate level, building on lessons learned from Switzerland
Thomas Schneider is the international information society coordinator and deputy head of international affairs and at the Swiss Federal Office of Communication (OFCOM) in the Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy, and Communications (DETEC). He is an expert in Internet governance and in the governance of the information society, in particular media/new media regulation, human rights, and consumer protection. He is coordinating the Swiss activities with regard to the implementation and follow‑up of the UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and is representing Switzerland in a number of international forums (ICANN/GAC, UN, ITU, Council of Europe, OSCE, UNESCO, etc.). In October 2014, he was elected the chair of the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) of ICANN.
Peter Gruetter chairs the Swiss Telecommunications Association. He is Member of the Board of ICTswitzerland and of the Board of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences, and ICT‑representative in the management of the National Economic Supply. As a lawyer and trusted advisor to Governments, international Organisations and Corporations, he focuses on issues of innovation and organisational transformation. From 2010 to 2012, as a Distinguished Fellow of Cisco Systems, he led the engagement of the private sector in the UN Making Cities Resilient Campaign, where 2000 cities worldwide coordinate their efforts for effective disaster risk reduction and build resilient structures by harnessing the potential of intelligent networks. From 2007 to 2010 he led the Partnership for Lebanon programme, a joint initiative of Cisco, Ghafari Associates, Intel, Microsoft, and Occidental Petroleum to modernise Lebanon and help the country recover from the 2006 war with Israel. From 1996 to 2007, Mr Gruetter was Secretary General of the Swiss Federal Department of Finance FDF. He chaired the IT Council of the Swiss Confederation and had the line responsibilty for the Federal IT Steering Unit, for the Federal Office of Information Technology, for the Federal Office for Buildings and Logistics, and for the Federal Office of Personnel. Earlier he served as Chief of Staff of the Swiss Federal Department of Defence.
Norbert Bollow studied mathematics and physics at ETH Zurich. Since then he has garnered years of experience in civil society activism on a wide range of information society topics, while carefully maintaining his independence from commercial interests related to the topics of civil society engagement. Key areas of engagement have included (1) the need for accessibility for persons with disabilities; (2) the revision of the Swiss copyright law especially in regard to the problem of the so‑called technical protection measures, which are intended to restrict what people can do, and which even prevent actions that are allowed by law; (3) the need for genuinely open technical standards; (4) protection of the human right to privacy in the context of electronic communications and the right of the peoples to democratic self‑determination. Mr Bollow is a co‑founder and co‑convenor of the Just Net Coalition. Commercially, on the one hand, he has worked intensely in the field of informatics, in particular in regard to the interface to the needs of the people, groups, and organisations that use the systems of information and communication technology. On the other hand he is experienced in the application of best practice methods for the solution of complex systemic challenges.
Michel Veuthey is Vice‑President of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law and Professeur associé at the Institut du Droit de la Paix et du Développement (IDPD) of the Nice University (France). Mr Veuthey had a long and distinguished career with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The positions he held at the ICRC include: Member of the Legal Division during the preparatory works and the sessions of the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts (1974–1977); Head of the International Organizations Division; Delegate General for Europe and North America; Assistant to the President of the ICRC; Head of Delegation, ICRC Regional Delegation for Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean (Pretoria); and Legal Advisor for the 50th Anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. He also carried out short field assignments in Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Mr Veuthey holds a Doctor of Law (1976) degree from the University of Geneva. He has lectured widely on international humanitarian law and is the author of a book and many articles on the subject. He was a member of the Board of MSF‑Switzerland for four years (2000–2004) and Academic Director of the International Diploma in Humanitarian Assistance (IDHA) organised in New York, Geneva, and Dublin (2000–2003). He has been Director of the Summer Courses on International Humanitarian Law in San Remo since 2000 and President of the Cercle des Amitiés Internationales in Geneva since 2005.
Hanane Boujemi is manager of Hivos’ MENA region programme on Internet governance. She is responsible for the design and implementation of the programme in the Arab region. Ms Boujemi has a Master’s degree in Human Rights and Democratization from the University of Malta and the Institute of advanced legal studies at the University of London. She previously worked as a consultant with UNESCWA as she contributed in defining the policy challenges and prospects of Internet governance in the Arab region. Ms Boujemi also participated in designing the Internet Governance Roadmap which maps the Internet governance issues specific to the region. She worked a senior policy analyst with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and was associated with DiploFoundation as a tutor in the capacity building programme on Internet governance and as the coordinator of Internet Governance Research Projects. Ms Boujemi is a regular contributor to GISWATCH annual report on Internet Rights and democratisation and she is also a member of the UN’s advisory group of the Arab Internet Governance Forum. She also coordinated input from the wider MENA region Internet governance community to NETmundial in São Paulo 2014. She has contributed consistently in the global Internet governance process since 2006 and is a driving force behind engaging civic actors and governments from the MENA region in a dialogue to overcome Internet policy challenges which hinder public interest. Ms Boujemi has developed excellent negotiations skills to build consensus over critical issues specific to Internet governance from a developing country perspective and has experience in policy analysis, issues mapping and engineering policy recommendations. She also has experience in different policy contexts, mainly Africa and South‑East Asia.
Evidence in Internet governance: Measurement and data‑mining
As Chief Strategy Officer, Aaron Boyd provides direction in developing ABI’s worldwide operations and product offerings, including recognising and pursuing new business relationships, areas of growth opportunity, and strategic alliances. Mr Boyd brings significant experience in international markets and brand development, based on over 18 years of management with some of the world’s most recognised technology companies. His work has been recognised by the Public Relations Society of America and the American Advertising Federation, as well as by marketing and tech industry publications. ABI Research is a technology market intelligence company with a 24‑year proven track record that is focused on putting information into the hands of executives in order to enable them to make the right decisions on technology and market investment at the right time. ABI Research quantifies the important markets of today, defines the strategic technologies of tomorrow, and provides insight on how technology is adopted into vertical markets.
Sacha Wunsch‑Vincent is Senior Economic Officer in the Office of the Chief Economist of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva. Before joining WIPO, he was an economist at the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry for seven years, most recently as co‑leader of the OECD’s Innovation Strategy. Before joining the OECD, he was the Swiss National Science Fellow at the Berkeley Center for Law and Technology (University of California, Berkeley) and at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He also worked as an economist at the UN International Trade Center (UNCTAD/WTO) and served as advisor to organisations such as the World Bank, the World Economic Forum (WEF), and the UN Information Communication Technology Task Force, mostly on matters relating to innovation, information technology, and international trade (especially the General Agreement on Trade in Services). He holds a Master’s degree in International Economics from the Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology, University of Maastricht, and a PhD in Economics from the University of St Gallen, Switzerland. He teaches international economics at Sciences Po Paris and the World Bank Institute.
Eliot Lear is a longtime member of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and author of several Requests for Comments. He is a principal engineer for Cisco Systems and also worked for Silicon Graphics as an Internet Architect. Mr Lear is a graduate of Rutgers University, in New Brunswick, NJ.
Kavé Salamatian is Professor of Computer Science, at the University of Savoie, France. He is also invited Professor at the Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Science and Researcher at the Castex Chair of CyberStrategy, Institute of High Study in National Defense, Paris, France.
Lessons learned from other multistakeholder processes
Anne‑Marie Buzatu is Deputy Head of the Operations IV division, Public‑Private Partnerships. Working under a mandate of the Swiss government, she led the elaboration of the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers (ICoC – January 2009 – November 2010). She also lead the development of the ICoC Association, a multi‑stakeholder governance and oversight mechanism for the ICoC, which began operations in September 2013. In addition, Ms Buzatu has provided support to the Swiss government and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in their efforts to raise awareness about the Montreux Document for Private Military and Security Companies through regional workshops and in supporting state participation. She is also currently working on a project in collaboration with the ICRC to develop security sector reform‑security sector governance (SSR‑SSG) guidance for multinational companies.In a previous life, Anne‑Marie worked as a web designer and database administrator.
Andrew Orsmond the newly appointed Executive Director of the International Code of Conduct Association (ICoCA). He has a deep background in international human rights law and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Prior to joining the ICoCA, he worked in private practice advising clients across a range of different industries on developing and implementing CSR commitments, with a special focus on structuring operational security to meet internationally recognised standards and principles. In the course of his work, Mr Orsmond has also led numerous field missions that conducted monitoring and assessment of the human rights impact of public and private security for extractive sector clients. During the development stages of the ICoCA, he was actively involved in support of the Temporary Steering Committee, providing perspective on the challenges of effective certification, monitoring and grievance mechanisms. In addition, Mr Orsmond was an officer in the United States Marine Corps for 11 years and this provides him with the added advantage of understanding the complex environments in which the private security industry frequently operates.
Michel Quillé is Vice‑President of the International Forum on Technologies and Security – IFTS (a forum supported by the French government and Interpol to explore new technologies and a safer use of them by citizens) and Consultant in Security for International Organisations, national law enforcement agencies and private sector, specialised in SSR (Security Sector Reform). He is also a former Deputy Director of EUROPOL (European Law Enforcement Agency) between 2006 and 2014, where he has been in charge of the Operations Department. In January 2013, he set up inside his department the European Cyber Crime Center (EC3) whose mission is to fight cyber crime in the European Union, focusing on child pornography, breach against critical infrastructures, and illegal use of the Internet for financial crime. The last position of Mr Quillé held inside the French Ministry of Interior was Director of the International Multilateral Police Cooperation, being in charge of Interpol, Schengen, and Europol for the whole French Security Forces. Between 1998 and 2000, he took part inside the UNO in the drafting of the Convention Against Organized Crime (Palermo Convention).
Michele Woods serves as Director of the Copyright Law Division at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. She has over 20 years of copyright law experience. Her responsibilities include WIPO’s activities regarding progressive development of multilateral copyright and related rights agreements, provision of legislative assistance on copyright and related rights laws, and implementation of copyright and related rights treaties administered by WIPO. Prior to joining WIPO, Ms Woods was the Associate Register for Policy and International Affairs at the United States Copyright Office, where she assisted the Register of Copyrights in advising the US Congress and executive branch agencies on domestic and international copyright policy matters, and represented the Copyright Office in US government delegations to international organisations including WIPO and in meetings and negotiations with foreign governments.
Drafting in policy processes: how can we best nurture the socialisation of policy texts in multistakeholder contexts?
Richard Hill is President of the Association for Proper Internet Governance, a non‑profit organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland. He has an extensive background in information systems, telecommunications, negotiation, mediation, and conflict management. He is an accredited mediator and an active domain name arbitrator. He has published papers on mediation and computer‑related intellectual property issues and on the International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs). Mr Hill was Secretary for the ITU‑T Study Groups dealing with numbering and tariff issues, network operations, and economic and policy issues; he was the Secretary for the preparatory process for the 2012 World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT) and headed the secretariat team dealing with substantive issues at the Conference. Mr Hill has facilitated numerous complex international negotiations regarding sensitive policy matters, including Internet governance.
Alexander Sceberras Trigona is Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of Malta and the Ambassador of Malta to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva. He served as Malta’s Foreign Minister from 1981 to 1987 and in this capacity he negotiated Malta’s Neutrality Agreements with Italy, France, Algeria, Libya, the United States and the USSR. He ensured that Malta’s Neutrality was handsomely supported by Financial Protocols which he negotiated with Italy, the EEC, the People’s Republic of China, Libya, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. He launched a series of Mediterranean Foreign Ministers’ Conferences for the Non‑Aligned countries of the Mediterranean – widely lauded as significant confidence building measures [CBMs] at the height of the Cold War – the first of which was held in Valletta in 1984, the second in Brioni, Yugoslavia in 1987 and the third in Algiers, Algeria in 1990. On behalf of Malta, Dr Sceberras Trigona contested, secured and managed for the two years of 1983 and 1984 Malta’s only elected seat since independence at the United Nations Security Council [UNSC]. He was International Secretary of the Young Socialists’ League in Malta and International Secretary of the Malta Labour Party. He regularly represented Malta at the Socialist International Conferences worldwide and at meetings of the Party of European Socialists [PES]. Dr Sceberras Trigona was appointed in March 2009 to the European Jurists’ Network [Eusonet]. In May 2010 he was elected to the Board of the Brussels‑based Scientific Council of the Foundation of European Progressive Studies (FEPS). He graduated in Malta and holds a BA and an MA from Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar. His law doctoral thesis on constitutional change was seminal in Malta’s transformation from a Constitutional Monarchy to a Republic in 1974. Dr Sceberras Trigona lectures on Private International Law as well as on Diplomacy at the University of Malta and is a Co‑founder and Senior Fellow at DiploFoundation. He has organised courses simulating international negotiations – bilateral and multilateral – at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies [MEDAC], Malta, since 1991 as well as for the Geneva Centre for Security Policy [GCSP], for the Commonwealth, and for the Commission of the European Union [EU] and the African Union {AU], amongst others. He participated as a Special Guest at the United Nations’ two World Summits on the Information Society (WSIS) the first in Geneva in December 2003 and the second in Tunis, November 2005 and at regular meetings of the Internet Governance Forum [IGF] thereafter.
Funding, accountability, and trust in Internet governance
Markus Kummer is an independent consultant specialising in Internet governance and policy. He was appointed member of the Board of Directors of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Number (ICANN) at the ICANN meeting held in Los Angeles in October 2014. Until September 2014, he was the Internet Society’s Senior Vice President. He joined the Internet Society in 2011, to assume the position of Vice‑President in charge of public policy. Before, he worked for the United Nations, first as Executive Coordinator of the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) and subsequently of the Secretariat supporting the Internet Governance. In this capacity he was responsible for preparing and organising the first five annual Internet Governance Forum (IGF) meetings between 2006 and 2010. In 2013, he was asked by the United Nations to chair the preparatory process for the annual IGF meeting held in Bali, Indonesia. He currently serves as the advisor of the Chairman of the IGF Multistakeholder Advisory Group (MAG) and as Secretary of the IGF Support Association (IGFSA). Mr Kummer joined the United Nations in 2004, after holding the position of eEnvoy of the Swiss Foreign Ministry. He was a member of the Swiss delegation during the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) where he chaired several negotiating groups, including the groups dealing with human rights and Internet governance. He served as a career diplomat in several functions in the Swiss Foreign Ministry since 1979. He was posted to the Embassies of Switzerland to Portugal, Austria, Norway, and Turkey as well as the Swiss Mission to the United Nations in Geneva. Between 1998 and 2002, Mr Kummer was seconded to the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), where he was in charge of administering and negotiating Free Trade Agreements with partner countries such as Canada, Mexico, Chile, Singapore, Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia, Macedonia, and the Palestinian Authority. Before joining the Swiss diplomatic service, Mr Kummer worked as a journalist at the news desk of Swiss Radio International in Bern. He has a Master’s degree in languages, literature, and journalism from the University of Bern. He is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
Désirée Miloshevic is an Internet public servant and Senior Public Policy and International Affairs Advisor in Europe for Afilias, global provider of internet infrastructure and registry services. Ms Miloshevic served as Special Advisor to the Chair of the United Nations’ Internet Governance Forum Multistakeholder Advisory Group from 2006 to 2009. She was a Visiting Associate at the Oxford Internet Institute from 2008‑2009 and 2011‑2012 researching Internet governance issues. She currently serves on the Board of Trustees of the Internet Society and on the Advisory Council of Open Rights Group, UK. Her two decades of close and productive interactions with regulators, intergovernmental leaders, academics, artists, computer wizards and community activists throughout the world provide her with a unique set of resources with which to engage the often complex, cross‑sectoral challenges of Internet technical coordination and governance.
Jean‑Marie Chenou is a lecturer in International Relations at the University of Lausanne. He holds a PhD in Political Science from this university and a Master’s in International Relations from the University of Paris II. He has been teaching IR as an adjunct professor in Colombia and as a teaching assistant at the University of Lausanne. Mr Chenou’s research focuses on the emergence and evolution of Internet governance as a field and on the role of transnational elites in internet governance. He recently co‑edited The Evolution of Global Internet Governance – Principles and Policy in the Making together with Roxana Radu and Rolf H. Weber (Springer, 2014).
Closing session: wrap‑up and concluding remarks
Philipp Metzger has been Director‑General of the Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM) since 1 January 2014. His most important tasks include supervising and implementing the revision of the Radio and Television Act and the further development of the Telecommunications Act. The Federal Council appointed Mr Metzger to his new position on 13 September 2013. He succeeds Martin Dumermuth, who left OFCOM at the end of October 2013. Mr Metzger was Deputy to the Director of the Development Office of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) based in Geneva. His previous posts at OFCOM included Vice‑Director and Head of the Telecom Services Division from 2007 and Deputy Director from 2012. Before OFCOM, he worked in Switzerland and abroad in law offices, in the private sector and with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Mr Metzger is a qualified Swiss attorney, holds a Master’s degree from the College of Europe and has extensive knowledge of electronic communications and the information society. He is also experienced in both national and international political processes and negotiations.

The Geneva Internet Platform is an initiative of the Swiss authorities


Members of the Steering Committee are FDFA, OFCOM and the Canton of Geneva

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